Instructions to Authors


On-line editorial office: All manuscripts and editorial correspondence must be submitted online to the editorial office at . Each submission is assigned a unique number and acknowledged by e-mail.

Language: English.

Exclusive publication statement: Each author must certify that none of the material in the manuscript has been published previously in either print or electronic form, and that none of the submitted material is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. This includes symposia, transactions, books, articles published by invitation, posting in electronic format and preliminary publications of any kind except an abstract of 400 words or fewer.
Authors are responsible for all (ethical, scientific, legal, etc.) content of their published material.

Review: Three or more reviewers (including outside peer reviewers) are assigned for each article and acceptance is based on significance, originality, and validity of the presented material. If the article is accepted for publication, editorial revisions may be made to aid clarity and understanding without altering the meaning.

Acceptance: The submitted papers will be published upon the editorial board's approval. Rejected manuscripts and their attachments (photographs, tables, graphics, and diskettes) will not be returned unless otherwise requested by the authors.

Copyright transfer: Authors of articles submitted to the Cardiovascular Surgery and Interventions must transfer copyright to the Cardiovascular Surgery and Interventions. This transfer becomes binding upon acceptance of the article for publication. No part of the published material may be reproduced elsewhere without written permission from the Cardiovascular Surgery and Interventions.

Instructions for manuscript preparation

All submissions, including the text, tables, graphics and photographs should be made on-line.

Checklist The following checklist is provided for the author's convenience. Please use this list to ensure that the manuscript is complete before submitted. Incomplete manuscripts are not accepted for editorial review.


  • Submit manuscripts, preferably prepared in Microsoft Word. Manuscripts written in 11 point Arial or Times New Roman fonts are preferred. Type manuscript double-spaced (including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and legends).

  • Arrange manuscript as follows: (1) abstract, (2) text, (3) acknowledgments (if available), (4) disclosures (if required), (5) references, (6) tables and (7) legends. Number all the pages consecutively, beginning with the title page and including the legends page.

  • Set the length of an original article or review paper at a maximum of 20 double-spaced pages including one title page, one abstract page, about 10 pages of text (2250 words), maximum three pages of references and one legends page (if available) . Tables should be placed on separate pages.

  • Always use leading zeros in decimal fractions. Report values and percentages to one decimal place unless it is absolutely necessary to use more than one decimal place (i.e., xy.z, not xy.zq).

  • The text for case reports and "How to Do It" articles should be no more than eight double-spaced typewritten pages (1,000 words), excluding the title page, summary and references. If tables or illustrations are included, the text must be reduced by 1/2 page or 125 words per table or illustration. A “How to Do It” article should be a description of a useful surgical technique and contain detailed illustrative material.

  • Correspondence (Letters to the Editor) and "Interesting Image" papers should not exceed two double-spaced pages (500 words) and should not include more than four references. Tables and illustrations accompanying the “Letters to the Editor” papers will be considered for publication only in exceptional circumstances. “Interesting Image” papers should include one or two original and high quality digital images accompanied by a brief presentation of the relevant case without an abstract.

  • Reviews should not exceed 4000 words and editorials should be limited to 2500 words.

  • "Technical videos" section is intended to capture informative surgical techniques, innovations and personal experience aiming to increase visual understandability leading to high educational impact. The submitted videos of each article should not exceed 20 minutes. Digital files for videos in MP4, Flash video (.flv), MPEG (MPEG video file), mov, avi, and wmv formats will be accepted. The main language should be English, but we welcome subtitles in Turkish. If the video shows patients' surgical details, authors should obtain consent.

    The title is limited to 200 characters. Conflict of Interest should be disclosed on the title page. A descriptive text should be accompanied. The text should include five subheadings; Abstract, Introduction, Surgical Technique, Comments, and References. Abstracts are limited to100 words. Two to four keywords can be included following the abstract. The text should be no longer than 1000 words. Any abbreviations should be defined on first usage in the text. Number of references should not exceed 5. All technical videos will be assessed for suitability by peer review.

  • "Invited letters" section aims to share the perspective and experience of our distinguished colleagues with our readers. These letters will be accepted only from invited authors and they should be no longer than 2000 words. They should include an abstract. Abstracts are limited to 250 words.

Title page

  • Give the paper as short a title as possible (fewer than 95 letters for original articles, 80 letters for case reports, correspondence and Howto Do-It articles, including spaces). Avoid abbreviations in the title. Submit a short title of 40 characters to be used as the running head.

  • Include only full names of the authors directly affiliated with the work. The maximum number of authors is eight for original articles, five for case reports and “How to Do It” articles and three for correspondence. Exceeding numbers will have to be justified to the editor. Include the name and location of no more than two institutional affiliations where the work was actually done. If more than one department or institution are given, indicate affiliation of each author.

  • If the paper was or is to be presented at a congress or a scientific meeting, provide a footnote giving the name, date and location of the meeting.

  • At the bottom of the page, type the name, postal address (with zip code), telephone number, fax number and e-mail address of the corresponding author, to whom communications, proofs, and requests for reprints should be sent.


  • • Provide a structured abstract of no longer than 250 words for an original article. The abstract should be divided into four sections in the following order: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for case reports, “How to Do It” articles and reviews should be unstructured and shorter (100 words). Three to five key words from MeSH index can be added below the abstract. No abstract is required for correspondence, commentaries “Interesting Images” and editorials. Abbreviations should be avoided in the abstracts.

  • Avoid abbreviations when possible. Define abbreviations at first appearance, if it is necessary to use them.
  • Generally, the text should be organized as follows: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. The Introduction should include the topic and objectives of the study. The Materials and Methods section should include the place, time period and the design of the study. If subtitles are necessary in the Materials and Methods section, these can be arranged as: patient characteristics, surgical technique or experimental design, data collection, follow-up and the details of statistical analysis. The statistical comparison should be provided next to the findings in the Results section. In the Discussion, authors should evaluate their results in the view of current literature.

  • References, illustrations and tables should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text.

  • Avoid abbreviations when possible. Define abbreviations at first appearance, and avoid their use in the title and abstract.

  • Give all measurements and weights in standard metric units.

  • For statistical nomenclature and data analysis, follow the “Guidelines for Data Reporting and Nomenclature” published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery (1988;46:260-1).

  • Type footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they are cited. Credit suppliers of drugs, equipment and other brand-name material mentioned in the article in parentheses in text, giving company name and location.

  • Type acknowledgments, including grant and subsidy information or technical assistance at the end of the text before the references.


  • Referencing should be selective and pertain directly to the work being reported. Except in collective and current reviews, comprehensive listings serve no useful purpose but use valuable space. As a general guide, limit the number of references to 25 for original articles, to six for case reports and “How to Do It” articles, 85 for reviews and to four for letter to the Editor.

  • Do not cite personal communications, manuscripts in preparation, and other unpublished data.

  • Type references double-spaced on a separate sheet. Number consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the text.

  • Journal references should provide inclusive page numbers; book references should cite specific page numbers.

  • References should be given throughout the text as follows:
    • If the surname of the first author of the referenced article is given, “et al.” should be added after it, followed by its reference number within square brackets “[ ]” (superscript preferred), and then the sentence should be completed.
    • Give references in the text using Arabic numerals in brackets “[ ]” (superscript preferred).
    • If different references are given for different statements, each reference should be given within square brackets “[ ]” after the punctuation mark at the end of the relevant statement.
    • If there are more than two consecutive references, the first and the last ones should be given with “-” mark between them: e.g. [1-3]; [14-18]; [8-14].

  • Double-check all references. All authors if six or fewer should be listed; otherwise the first six should be written accompanied by “et al”.
  • Abbreviations of journals should conform to those used in Index Medicus. Authors are solely responsible for the accuracy and completeness of references.

  • The style and punctuation of the references should follow the formats outlined below:
  • Journal article (International)
    Martin TD, Craver JM, Gott JP, Weintraub WS, Ramsay J, Mora CT, et al. Prospective, randomized trial of retrograde warm blood cardioplegia: myocardial benefit and neurologic threat. Ann Thorac Surg 1994;57:298-304.
  • Journal article (National)
    Teskin Ö, Yapıcı F, Enç Y, Özay B, Ketenci B, Demirtaş M ve ark. Bentall prosedürü ve modifikasyonlarının erken ve geç dönem sonuçları. Turk Gogus Kalp Dama 2000;8:579-83.
  • Presentations
    Galloway AC, Ribakove GH, Miller JS, Anderson RV, Buttenheim PM, Baumann FG, et al. Minimally invasive port-access valvular surgery: Initial clinical experience. Presented at the 70th Scientific Session of the American Heart Association; 1997 Nov 10-13; Orlando, FL. Circulation 1997;96:2845.
  • Book
    Beard JD, Gaines PA, editors. Vascular and endovascular surgery. London: W. B. Saunders; 1998.
  • Chapter in a book
    Vouhé PR. Transplantation of thoracic organs in children. In: Fallis JC, Filler RM, Lemoine G, editors. Pediatric thoracic surgery. New York: Elsevier; 1991. p. 319-29.
  • Internet Address
    1996 NRC Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Available at: contents.html. Accessed October 20, 2003.
  • Tables should be typewritten double-spaced on separate Word sheets, each with a table number (Arabic) and title above the table and explanatory notes and legends below. Provide a key symbol and place all abbreviations in alphabetic order below the table, together with their explanations.

  • Include written permission from both the author and the publisher to reproduce any previously published table(s) in both print and electronic media.

  • Tables should be self-explanatory and the data should not be duplicated in the text or illustrations. If a table provides redundant information, it will be omitted.
  • Type legends double-spaced sequentially on a separate sheet. Numbers should be Arabic and correspond to the order in which the illustrations appear in the text. Explanations of all abbreviations should appear in alphabetic order at the end of each legend.

  • Give the type of stain and magnification power for all photomicrographs.

  • Include written permission from both the author and the publisher to reproduce any previously published table(s) in both print and electronic media.

  • Enclose signed releases for recognizable (unmasked) photographs of human beings.
  • Images or figures are submitted online as one or more separate files that may contain one or more images. Within each file containing images, use the figure number (eg, Figure 1A) as the image filename. The system accepts image files formatted in TIFF and JPEG. Powerpoint (.ppt) files are accepted for line drawings only and you must use a separate Powerpoint image file for each Powerpoint figure. Please obtain technical help if you are unfamiliar with image files.

  • Written permission from both the author and the publisher (copyright holder) is required to reproduce any previously published, illustration(s) or photograph(s) in both print and electronic media, and must be surface mailed or faxed to the editorial office once the manuscript is submitted online.

  • Written permission from unmasked patients appearing in photographs must be obtained by the authors and must be surface mailed or faxed to the editorial office once the manuscript is submitted online.

  • Original illustrations. If your manuscript is accepted for publication and the electronic art you have submitted online is not acceptable for reproductive purposes, you may be required to send a set of original illustrations to the editorial office. You will be instructed accordingly by the staff.
Human investigation: Include the date of approval by the local institutional human research committee and the ethical guidelines that were followed by the investigators in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript. Also include an affirmation that informed consent was obtained from each participant.

Humane animal care: The Materials and Methods section must contain a statement assuring that all animals received humane care in compliance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.

Conflict of interest: Cardiovascular Surgery and Interventions requires authors to disclose in the cover letter any commercial association (eg, employment, direct payments, stock holdings, retainers, consultantship, patent licensing arrangements, or honoraria) that might pose a conflict of interest issue concerning the manuscript. All funding sources supporting the work should be acknowledged in a footnote.

Scientific responsibility statement: Before publication of an accepted manuscript, each author will be required to certify that he or she has participated sufficiently in the work to take responsibility for a meaningful share of the content of the manuscript, and that this participation included:

  1. Conception or design of the experiment(s), or collection and analysis or interpretation of data;
  2. Drafting the manuscript or revising its intellectual content; and
  3. Approval of the final version of the manuscript to be published.
Exclusive publication statement: “I certify that none of the material in this manuscript has been published previously, and that none of this material is currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. This includes symposia, transactions, books, articles published by invitation, and preliminary publications of any kind except an abstract of 400 words or fewer.”

Decleration of sponsorship: The authors should describe the role of the study's sponsors in the following areas:

  1. Designing the study
  2. Collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data
  3. Writing the report

Ahmet Rüçhan Akar, MD.
Editor, Cardiovascular Surgery and Interventions
Ataşehir Mah., Ataşehir Bulvarı, 48 Ada, Mimoza 2/2, K: 2, D: 6,
34758 Ataşehir, İstanbul, Turkey
Tel-Fax: +90 216 - 456 14 54
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